Steps to perform Kernel Upgrade

SAP Kernel is the core of the application. Like all other applications the Kernel contains the executable files (.EXE files for stating various processes in SAP. It contains those files which are used to run every event in SAP. ex: starting database, shutdowns of database, starting sap, shutdown of sap, saposcol, to uncar the sap files etc. It contains more than 120 exe files.
That’s the reason why when a Kernel upgrade is done it means new versions of the various EXE files replace the older versions.
The steps to do kernel upgrade are listed below:
1. Check existing kernel Level from server (system=>status=>other kernel info OR disp+work –v | more)
2. Download the latest kernel patch from SMP
There are 2 files to be downloaded from SMP:
a) Database Independent Files
This is of the nomenclature SAPEXE_<Patch level>-<release date>.SAR
b) Database Dependent files
This is of the nomenclature SAPEXEDB_<Patch level>-<release date>.SAR
3. Make temp directory in sap server (temp) and upload sar file into it.(ftp)
4. Take backup of existing run directory to run_old. (copy and rename)
Copy the present kernel folder safely. This is important because the activity is completely reversible and switching  over  to the old kernel will be possible. 
5. Extract sar files (SAPCAR –xvf *.SAR)
Uncar the files using the SAPCAR utility and store it in a directory. SAPCAR is a program executable located in the  KERNEL folder itself. If SAPCAR is not working, then copy the executable from the kernel folder to the location where the      .SAR files are located.
SAPCAR -xvf <filename.SAR>
6. stop sap server (stopsap all)
7. stop saposcol (saposcol –k)
SAPOSCOL service should be stopped because it also will get overwritten by the new file. 
8. stop lisner (orasid user – lsnrctl stop)
9. check all service running in os level (ps –ef |grep sap, ora, dw)
10. Release shared memory (cleanipc instance no –remove, slib remove)
11. Replace all uncar file to run directory (cp –R * /usr/sap/SID/SYS/exe/run)
12. Some *.o files are not replace existing files then move that file from existing run directory to other directory and again execute step no 11.
13. Switch user to root and go to /usr/sap/SID/SYS/exe/run directory execute command ./saproot.sh SID to set permission.
Check the permissions of the files in the kernel directory
chown [-R] newowner filenames
chmod <1>permissions filename
14. Start saposcol (./saposcol –l) by only root user
15. Start listner (lsnrctl start )by orasid user
16. startsap all by sidadm
17. Check service are started or not.(ps –ef |grep dw)

18. Check sap kernel patch level.
Execute the command disp+work -v to get the new kernel level

Do we need to shutdown database also during kernel upgrade (SAP Recommendation)?


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